References to „burden-sharing“, „responsibility-sharing“ or what the Lisbon Treaty now prefers to call „solidarity between Member States“ are often heard in the context of EU policy. Recently, such references have been a benchmark in the areas of financial rescue in the context of EMU, EU climate policy and Member States` defence cooperation. This article is intended to contribute to the emerging debate on European burden-sharing by answering the following questions: why and under what conditions does burden-sharing take place between Member States? Why are „burdens“ so unevenly distributed and how can we explain the existing patterns of burden-sharing between states? Why are effective and fair burden-sharing agreements so difficult to achieve? These questions provide a first glimpse of the theoretical debate on the motivations and mechanisms of burden-sharing in the EU; and, secondly, by illustrating some of the challenges and limitations of fair burden-sharing in the management of EU refugees. Keywords: burden-sharing, EU policies, Member States, refugee management The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls on all parties to protect the climate system according to their common but differentiated responsibilities and capacities. This principle of justice was formulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and still serves today as a model for the development of criteria to ensure fair burden-sharing within the framework of the United Nations climate regime. However, since then, the responsibilities and capacities of countries have evolved considerably, both in terms of climate protection and protection against the effects of climate change. In this context, it is clear that the current criteria for burden-sharing and financial transfers are unfair and ineffective, both from a climate policy point of view: unfair, above all, when it comes to financing adaptation to climate change; ineffective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With regard to the financing of adaptation measures, vulnerability to the consequences of climate change is the main allocation criterion under the climate regime. .