In 2009, Carbon Retirement reported that less than 30 pence in every pound spent on certain carbon offset programs goes directly to emission reduction projects.  Figures provided by the BBC, based on UN data, show that the costs of installing and maintaining an environmental project are generally eliminated. 34p goes to the company that takes the risk that the project will fail. Investors in the project take 19p, with smaller sums of money being distributed among the organisations involved in the intermediation and audit of the credits. In this respect, Co₂ offsets are similar to most consumer goods, with only a fraction of the selling prices to offshore producers, the rest being divided between investors and traders, who put them on the markets that they have to pay themselves to their employees and service providers, such as advertising agencies that are mostly in expensive areas. The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, by 192 industrialized countries, comes closest to a global agreement that works to combat climate change. Countries that ratify the Kyoto Protocol are given a CAP on CO2 emissions. If more than the assigned limit is issued, the injuring country is subject to a penalty in the form of a lower emission limit for the following period. However, if a country wishes to emit more greenhouse gases than its allowable limit (without penalty), it can participate in the emissions trading scheme with an ERPA. The emissions reduction contract between the buyer and seller of emission credits is an important document for developers of climate change projects. It identifies responsibilities, rights and obligations for project risk management.
It also defines the commercial conditions of the project, including the price, volume and delivery plan for emission reductions. In a much smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies or governments buy carbon offsets to reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity consumption and other sources. For example, a person could buy carbon offsets to offset greenhouse gas emissions caused by personal air travel. Climate protection service providers offer the direct purchase of co₂ offsets and often offer other services, for example.B. designating a climate change project to support or measure a buyer`s carbon footprint. In 2016, approximately $191.3 million in CO2e offsets were purchased on the voluntary market, or approximately 63.4 million tonnes of CO2e reduction.  1/ The compensation obligation is arranged on instruction as soon as the customer has successfully made a payment. CO2 Cards will withdraw Emission Reduction Credits (VER) from the purchase contract of the register In a recent survey carried out by EcoSecurities, Conservation International, CCBA and ClimateBiz, the 120 companies surveyed assessed the benefits for the Community and the environment as the main driver for the purchase of CO2 offsets.
 While climate change measures that finance renewable energy projects contribute to reducing the carbon intensity of energy supply, energy-saving projects aim to reduce overall energy demand. . . .